This study aimed to combine with typical cases to study the translation of legal English from the perspective of functional equivalence in order to improve the quality of translation of legal texts and guide the translation of specific legal texts. It used literature review to review the theoretical and empirical research on functional equivalence theory, and the method of case study was used to describe how to apply functional equivalence theory in legal translation from three aspects: lexical level, sentence level and text level. Functional equivalence theory emphasizes that legal English translation is not a simple equivalent of literal form, nor is it limited to expression of literal meaning. It emphasizes the equivalence of legal function, emphasizing that what readers’ response to the translated information is basically the same as what they respond to the original text. That is equivalence of effectiveness and function, while considering the equivalence of forms. Under the guidance of the theory of equivalence, translators should adopt appropriate translation techniques such as literal translation, addition and subtraction of words, completing sentence, adjustment of word order, transformation of words based on the different characteristics of legal English vocabulary, sentence and text. They should master as much legal language as possible, understanding meaning and usage of these special terms, and paying attention to the different cultural backgrounds and habits of using the two languages in the translation to ensure the accuracy, rigor and effectiveness of legal translation. This study mainly studied the application of functional equivalence theory in the process of legal English translation from the three levels of word, sentence and text. In the lexical level, this study mainly discussed Old English, the lack of corresponding terms, ambiguous language, how to use functional equivalence theory in the process of legal English translation. In terms of sentence level, it mainly explored how long sentence, complete sentence, long sentence and nominalization structure can be translated by using functional equivalence theory. At the level of text, it mainly analyzed the veracity of language, the style of text, and the use of functional equivalence in the use of modal verbs, how to achieve cohesion and coherence in translation.
Keywords: legal English; translation; functional equivalence theory; lexical level; sentence level; text level
本文的研究目的是結合典型實例從功能對等的理論視角展開法律英語翻譯的研究，以期對具體的法律文本翻譯 起到一定的指導作用，從而提高法律文本的翻譯質量。本文采用文獻回顧的方法對功能對等的理論和實證研究進行了回顧，并采用了案例研究的方法從詞匯，句子，篇章三個方面講述了如何應用功能對等理論在法律翻譯中。功能對等理論指出法律英語翻譯不是字面形式的簡單對等，更不是拘泥于字面意義的傳達，而是法律功能的對等，強調譯文讀者對譯文信息的反應和原文讀者對原文信息的反應基本一致。即效力和功能對等，同時兼顧形式對等。在對等 理論的指導下，譯者應針對法律英語詞匯，句子，篇章的不同特征采取與之相適應的翻譯技巧，如直譯、增減詞、完整 句法、調整語序、詞類轉換及長句拆譯法，并須掌握盡可能多的法律特殊用語，了解他們的意義和用法， 悉知這些特殊用語的漢語對等語，同時注意在翻譯中要考慮兩種語言不同的文化背景和用語習慣，確保法 律翻譯的準確性，嚴謹性和有效性。本文主要從單詞，句子和篇章三個層次對于功能對等理論在法律英語翻譯過程中的應用進行了案例研究，在詞匯層面，本文主要討論了古英語，缺乏對應的詞匯，模糊語言如何利用功能對等理論進行翻譯。在句子層面，本文主要討論了長句，完整句，長句和名詞化結構如何利用功能對等理論進行翻譯。在篇章層面，本文主要討論了語言的準確性，語篇風格，以及情態動詞，銜接和連貫使用方面利用功能對等理論進行翻譯的技巧。
Legal terms have stylized features, it has rigorous logic and obscure content. While legal terms are not easy to be grasped by a layman, but it can accurately express the concept of law without causing ambiguity (Sarcevic, 1997). Characteristics of legal English determine that legal English translation has its own unique problems and difficulties (Donat and Candel-Mora, 2015). At the same time, legal English translation requires the complete and accurate transmission of information such as rights, obligations, responsibilities and interests, and legal translation has a legal effect, its correctness not only affects the use of the law and even the justice of laws, but also affects international exchanges and cooperation (Sun, 2003). However, in practice, many legal translation practitioners ignore the uniqueness of legal English and do not form a se