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新疆35选7近1000期走势图:英國教育學essay:The Purpose of British Higher Education: Past, Present and Future

論文編號:lw201904101408161365 所屬欄目:essay寫作 發布日期:2019年04月10日 論文作者:論文網
1.0 Introduction引言
自18世紀以來,劍橋大學和牛津大學打破了宗教限制,開始了高等教育的精英教育,如今英國已成為世界上高等教育水平最高、規模最大的國家之一(Scott,1995年)。目前,英國高等教育機構包括90多所大學、123所學院、50所教育學院。值得注意的是,英國高等教育的宗旨及其相關政策并非一成不變,在兩百多年的歷史中,特別是近50年來,英國高等教育的宗旨和管理政策做出了許多調整。這些調整在解決英國高等教育的規模、教學質量和經費問題上取得了一定的成就和經驗(Scott,1995)。這些調整為英國未來的高等教育改革提供了有價值的參考,也為其他發展中國家的高等教育發展提供了模式(Smith和Webster,1997)。本文研究了20世紀60年代以來英國高等教育的目標和政策調整過程,以期預測英國高等教育目標和政策調整的未來趨勢。
Since the 18th century, the University of Cambridge and the University of Oxford broke religious restrictions to begin elite education of higher education, and now Britain has become one of the countries in the world with the highest level and the largest scales of higher education (Scott, 1995). Currently, British higher education institutions include more than 90 universities, 123 colleges, 50 educational colleges. It is noteworthy that the purpose of British higher education and related policies are not static, in the history of more than two hundred years, especially in the last 50 years, the purpose and management policies of British higher education have made many adjustments. These adjustments have made certain achievements and experiences in solving the problems of scale, teaching quality, and funding of British higher education (Scott, 1995). These adjustments provide a valuable reference for the future reform of higher education in the UK, they also provide a model for the development of higher education in other developing countries (Smith and Webster, 1997). This study studies the purpose of British higher education and the adjustment process of the policies since the 1960s, so as to forecast the future trend of purpose and policy adjustment of British higher education.
2.0 British Higher Education (1960-1980)英國高等教育(1960-1980)
2.1 The Transformation of British Higher Education (1960-1980)英國高等教育轉型(1960-1980)
《羅賓斯報告》是對20世紀60年代至80年代中期英國高等教育發展的預測和規劃。該報告闡述了高等教育的目標和原則、1962年英國高等教育的現狀、英國高等教育與其他國家的比較、對未來高等教育的預測和展望。R教育發展、經費問題、各部門的管理機制和職責,以及英國高等教育改革與發展面臨的一系列重大問題(tasker,1993年)。30多年來,英國高等教育在辦學政策、體制設計、發展戰略、資金投入機制、管理運行機制和高校的建立、規模、監測、評價等方面發生了深刻變化。羅賓斯報告是英國高等教育從傳統模式向現代模式、從精英高等教育向大眾高等教育的過渡宣言(羅賓斯報告,1963年)。
Robbins Report is the forecast and planning for British higher education development during 1960s - mid-1980s. The report elaborates the goals and principles of higher education, the status of higher education in the United Kingdom in 1962, the comparison of higher education in the UK with other countries, the prediction and vision of future higher education development, funding issues, management mechanisms and responsibilities of various departments, as well as a series of major problems that British higher education reform and development faced (Tasker, 1993). After more than 30 years, profound changes have taken place in British higher education in school-running policy, system design, development strategy, fund investment mechanism, management operation mechanism and establishment, scale, monitoring, evaluation of universities, as well as other aspects. Robbins Report is the transition declaration of the British higher education from the traditional model to the modern model, from elite higher education to popular higher education (Robbins Report, 1963).
2.2 British Higher Education Policy (1960-1980)
2.2.1 Democratized higher education system 
2.2.2 Expanded scale of higher education, transforming from elite education to popular education
2.2.3 Diverse structure of higher education, forming multi-level, multi-standard education system 
2.2.4 More open higher education system 
3.0 British Higher Education (1990-2010)
3.1 Problems in British Higher Education (1990-2010)
3.1.1 Unsatisfactory scale of higher education and unequal opportunities for education 
3.1.2 Increased grants and reduced education funding 
3.1.3 Diverse students and unified education 
3.1.4 New requirements for learning ability 
3.2 British Higher Education Policy (1990-2010)
3.2.1 Establish new mechanisms to raise funds for higher education and broaden the sources of edu
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